Vagrant for you RAC test environment

Creating your own test VM environment with RAC is a fun exercise to do, however after you have rebuild your environment a couple of times this will get a very tiresome exercise and you want to start to automate your deployments. People have already written several blogposts about the GI and RDBMS orchestrations and the several tools that are available for this. Within the Oracle community Ansible seems to be a very popular choice for the part of getting your test environment up-and-running. But what about the part to get your VM up-and-running, a very repetitive task and not a very interesting task to say the least.

One of your options would be to start scripting the creation of your VM’s and the installation of Linux afterwards. If you are using VirtualBox you could do this by writing a script around the VB commandline VBoxManage and create it from there. For your Linux deployment, PXE boot seems to be a logical choice to me but it still involves in running a DHCP and TFTP server locally (hint: dnsmasq), getting the ISO, bootloaders etc. A fun exercise to test but still quite a lot of work to automate or keep up-and-running.

So this is where Vagrant comes in, it can easily configure and deploy virtual machines for you. Basically it is “nothing  more” then a Ruby shell around several (VM) providers like VirtualBox, AWS, VMWare, Hyper-V and Dockers. Vagrant works with so called boxes, which are nothing more then compressed VM’s that can get modified for your needs at the moment you spin them up. You can choose to let Vagrant download a box from the Vagrant cloud or you could make your own box if your want. Running this:

vagrant init hashicorp/precise64

followed by:

vagrant up

This will give you a VirtualBox VM running Ubuntu which will be dowloaded from the Vagrant cloud. Out of the box Vagrant assumes you have VirtualBox installed. You can then ssh into the box with “vagrant ssh” or, within a multiple hosts scenario you can use “vagrant ssh nodename”. Stopping and starting your vagrant boxes can be done by respectively “vagrant halt” and “vagrant up”. If your are done and want to remove the VM, run “vagrant destroy”.

What if you want to do something more interesting, like deploying a RAC cluster which needs shared storage and multiple network interfaces. You need to create a file called Vagrantfile in your working directory. This file contains the code to modify your boxes with Vagrant. A very basic Vagrantfile should look something like this:

Vagrant.configure("2") do
  config.box = "hashicorp/precise64"
end

Let’s assume we want to create 2 VM’s with 4 disks of storage shared between them and as for networking we want a management interface, a public interface and interconnect network. We will end up with a this file: Here on GitHub Gist

Let’s break this file down so you got an understanding of what is going on. First of this file is, just as the rest of Vagrant, written in Ruby so all Ruby syntax will work in this file as well.

At the top i have defined some variables, such as the amount of servers i want to generate, hardware dimensions, shared disks etc. The API version is needed for Vagrant so it knows what syntax it can expect.

VAGRANTFILE_API_VERSION = "2"
ASM_LOC     = "/pathto/vagrant/rac/asmdisk"
num_disks   = 4
servers     = 2
mem         = 4096
cpu         = 2

The first step to do is to tell Vagrant how you want to setup your vagrant environment for this Vagrantfile. I am telling vagrant i want to use a box called oel68 (which is a custom Vagrant box i made) and i want X11 to be enabled for ease of use if i need to need to use DBCA or something similiar:

Vagrant.configure(VAGRANTFILE_API_VERSION) do |config|
config.vm.box = "oel68"
config.ssh.forward_x11 = true
config.ssh.forward_agent = true

Now for the interesting stuff, creating multiple VM’s for our RAC cluster. I didn’t want to copy and paste several server configurations and make small adjustments to them, instead i wanted to make it a bit more flexible so i just an each iterator that just loops through it until it reaches the “servers” variable. I am creating VM’s that are called rac1 until racn.

(1..servers).each do |rac_id|
config.vm.define "rac#{rac_id}" do |config|
config.vm.hostname = "rac#{rac_id}"

Next step is to create a ruby block that does the VirtualBox configuration. I am adding 2 nic’s, Nic 1 is already in the box by default and is a interface that is connected to my host with a nat network. Nic 2 is for the interconnects, nic 3 is my public interface. Further i am setting all the the nics to an Intel PRO/1000 MT Server card, changing the CPU and Memory settings and updating the SATA port count to 5 so we can add the shared storage later on.

# Do Virtualbox configuration
config.vm.provider :virtualbox do |vb|
	vb.customize ['modifyvm', :id, '--nic2', 'intnet', '--intnet2', 'rac-priv']
	vb.customize ['modifyvm', :id, '--nic3', 'hostonly', '--hostonlyadapter3', 'vboxnet0']

	# Change NIC type (https://www.virtualbox.org/manual/ch06.html#nichardware)
	vb.customize ['modifyvm', :id, '--nictype1', '82545EM']
	vb.customize ['modifyvm', :id, '--nictype2', '82545EM']
	vb.customize ['modifyvm', :id, '--nictype3', '82545EM']  

	# Change RAC node specific settings
	vb.customize ['modifyvm', :id, '--cpus', cpu]
	vb.customize ['modifyvm', :id, '--memory', mem]  

	# Increase SATA port count
	vb.customize ['storagectl', :id, '--name', 'SATA', '--portcount', 5]

We can now create the shared storage for our RAC cluster. We want to create 4 disks so we can use the same trick for this as we are doing for our server creation; an each iterator. We do need to take care of a few things here, we don’t want to overwrite an existing disk and only create and attach it once when we give the “vagrant up” command (this line). To be more precise, i only need one VM to create the disks with VBoxManage createmedium but i need all VM’s to attach these disks. The next IF loop makes sure that only the first node creates the disks and every other node only attaches the storage.

(1..num_disks).each do |disk|
	if ARGV[0] == "up" && ! File.exist?(ASM_LOC + "#{disk}.vdi")
		if rac_id == 1
			vb.customize ['createmedium',
						'--filename', ASM_LOC + "#{disk}.vdi",
						'--format', 'VDI',
						'--variant', 'Fixed',
						'--size', 5 * 1024]
			vb.customize ['modifyhd',
						 ASM_LOC + "#{disk}.vdi",
						'--type', 'shareable']
		end # End createmedium on rac1

		vb.customize ['storageattach', :id,
				'--storagectl', 'SATA',
				'--port', "#{disk}",
				'--device', 0,
				'--type', 'hdd',
				'--medium', ASM_LOC + "#{disk}.vdi"]
	end  # End if exist
end    # End of EACH iterator for disks

The code below is a workaround for a nasty bug with my CPU which i have both with VMWare Fusion and Virtual Box. It is well documented by Laurent Leturgez and Danny Bryant

# Workaound for Perl bug with root.sh segmentation fault,
# see this blogpost from Danny Bryant http://dbaontap.com/2016/01/13/vbox5/
vb.customize ['setextradata', :id, "VBoxInternal/CPUM/HostCPUID/Cache/Leaf", "0x4"]
vb.customize ['setextradata', :id, "VBoxInternal/CPUM/HostCPUID/Cache/SubLeaf", "0x4"]
vb.customize ['setextradata', :id, "VBoxInternal/CPUM/HostCPUID/Cache/eax", "0"]
vb.customize ['setextradata', :id, "VBoxInternal/CPUM/HostCPUID/Cache/ebx", "0"]
vb.customize ['setextradata', :id, "VBoxInternal/CPUM/HostCPUID/Cache/ecx", "0"]
vb.customize ['setextradata', :id, "VBoxInternal/CPUM/HostCPUID/Cache/edx", "0"]
vb.customize ['setextradata', :id, "VBoxInternal/CPUM/HostCPUID/Cache/SubLeafMask", "0xffffffff"]

We now have our VM’s ready and we can start the provisioning of these VM’s. If we just add a provisioning block like this Vagrant will start the provisioning in series. So create VM rac1, do provisioning, create rac2, do provisioning:

# Create disk partitions
if rac_id ==  1
       config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
if [ -f /etc/SFDISK_CREATE_DATE ]; then
echo "Partition creation already done."
exit 0
fi
for i in `ls /dev/sd* | grep -v sda`;  do echo \\; | sudo sfdisk -q $i; done
date > /etc/SFDISK_CREATE_DATE
       SHELL
end # End create disk partitions

In most cases you want to start the provisioning when all VM’s are ready. Vagrant supports several provisioning methods like Ansible, Shell scripting, Puppet, Chef etc. If we are intalling a $GI_HOME we need both nodes to be up, have all the interfaces up with IP’s assigned etc.

if rac_id == servers
	# Start Ansible provisioning
	config.vm.provision "ansible" do |ansible|
		#ansible.verbose = "-v"
		ansible.limit = "all"
		ansible.playbook = "ansible/rac_gi_db.yml"
	end # End of Ansible provisioning
end

Above i am only starting the provision block once my rac_id equals the server variable, meaning when i have created all my RAC nodes. Now Ansible can do the provisioning of my servers in parallel because the ansible limit variable is set to all. Vagrant makes an Ansible host file with all the hosts which you can use for the provisioning. The whole provisioning of a RAC cluster itself is outside the scope of this blogpost. If you want Vagrant a go, you can download it here

The link to the full Vagrantfile on Gist is here

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3 thoughts on “Vagrant for you RAC test environment

  1. Pingback: Creating a RAC cluster using Ansible (part 1) | Future Veterans

  2. Pingback: Creating a RAC cluster using Ansible (part 2) | Future Veterans

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